How to Cite

How to cite (APA)

In-Text Citation

An APA in-text citation consists of the author's last name and the year of publication (also known as the author-date system). If you're citing a specific part of a source, you should also include a locator such as a page number or timestamp. For example: (Saba, 2020, p. 170)

In- text citation can be in two types:

  • Parenthetical citation: According to new research … (Saba, 2020).
  • Narrative citation: Saba (2020) notes that …

Multiple authors and corporate authors

The in-text citation changes slightly when a source has multiple authors or an organization as an author. Pay attention to punctuation and the use of the ampersand (&) symbol.

Author type

Parenthetical citation

Narrative citation

One author

(Saba, 2020)

Saba (2020)

Two authors 

(Saba & Ahmed, 2020)

Saba and Ahmed (2020)

Three or more authors

(Saba et al., 2020)

Saba et al. (2020)










APA references

The basics

APA references generally include information about the authorpublication datetitle, and source. Depending on the type of source, you may have to include extra information that helps your reader locate the source.

Reference examples

Smith, T. (2020). The citation manual for students: A quick guide (2nd ed.). Wiley.


Reference List

A reference list is a complete list of references used in a piece of writing including the author name, date of publication, title and more. An APA reference list must:

  • Be on a new page at the end of the document
  • Be alphabetically by name of first author (or title if the author isn’t known, in this case a, an and the should be ignored)
    • If there are multiple works by the same author these are ordered by date, if the works are in the same year they are ordered alphabetically by the title and are allocated a letter (a,b,c etc) after the date
  • Contain full references for all in-text references used

Two Authors:

The surname of both authors is stated with either ‘and’ or an ampersand between. For example:

Nour and Saba(2017) state… Or …(Nour & Saba, 2017).


Three, Four or Five Authors:

For the first cite, all names should be listed:

Nour, Saba, and Ahmed (2017) state… Or …(Nour, Saba, & Ahmed, 2017).

Book referencing examples:

Mitchell, J., Thomson, M., & Coyne, R.P. (2017). A guide to citation. London, England: My Publisher

Jones, A.F & Wang, L. (2011). Spectacular creatures: The Amazon rainforest (2nd ed.). San Jose, Costa Rica: My Publisher

book referencing is the most basic style; it matches the template above, minus the URL section. So the basic format of a book reference is as follows

author’s surname, Initial(s). (year). Title, (Edition). Publisher location: Publisher


How to Cite an E-Book in APA Format

An E-Book reference is the same as a book reference expect the publisher is swapped for a URL. The basic structure is as follows:

Author surname, initial(s) (Edition). (Year). Title (ed.*). Retrieved from URL

E-Book example:

Mitchell, J.A., Thomson, M., & Coyne, R.P. (2017). A guide to citation. Retrieved from

How to Cite a Journal Article in Print or Online in APA Format

Articles differ from book citations in that the publisher and publisher location are not included. For journal articles, these are replaced with the journal title, volume number, issue number and page number. The basic structure is:

Author surname, initial(s). (year). Article title. Journal title, volume number (issue or part number), page number. Doi or URL

Journal Article Examples:

  • Janan Rasul Sultan, Aseel Jaleel Qatea, & Nader Ismail Halawa. (2023). Administrative excellence and its relationship to the creative abilities of the colleges of physical education and sports sciences in Baghdad from the perspective of professors. Modern Sport22(2), 0076.
  • Zahraa Qasim Abdul Khaliq, Suhad Hasseeb Abdul Hameed, & Dalia Mohamed Abo El-naser. (2023). The effect of rehabilitative exercises using the (Fit Light) technology on improving comprehensive balance abilities of temporarily hemiplegia females aged (45-55) years. Modern Sport22(2), 0161.


How to Cite Magazine Articles in Print or Online in APA Format

The basic structure is as follows:

Author surname, initial(s). (Year, month day). Title. Title of the Magazine, pp.

Magazine Article Example:

Mitchell, J.A. (2017). How citation changed the research world. The Mendeley, pp. 26-28

How to Cite a Website in APA Format

When citing a website, the basic structure is as follows:

Author surname, initial(s). (Year, month day). Title. Retrieved from URL

Website example:

Mitchell, J.A. (2017, May 21). How and when to reference. Retrieved from